Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.
The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different sub-types of glaucoma but they can all be considered a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma (above 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa). One person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, while another person may have high eye pressure for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness.
Glaucoma can be divided roughly into two main categories, "open angle" and "closed angle" glaucoma. Closed angle glaucoma can appear suddenly and is often painful; visual loss can progress quickly but the discomfort often leads patients to seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs. Open angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress at a slower rate and the patient may not notice that they have lost vision until the disease has progressed significantly.
Glaucoma has been nicknamed the "silent thief of sight" because the loss of vision normally occurs gradually over a long period of time and is often only recognized when the disease is quite advanced. Once lost, this damaged visual field cannot be recovered. Worldwide, it is the second leading cause of blindness. It is also the leading cause of blindness among African Americans. Glaucoma affects 1 in 200 people aged fifty and younger, and 1 in 10 over the age of eighty. If the condition is detected early enough it is possible to arrest the development or slow the progression with medical and surgical means.
The word glaucoma comes from the Greek γλαύκωμα, "opacity of the crystalline lens". (Cataracts and glaucoma were not distinguished until c.1705).
There are two main types of glaucoma: open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma.
Open-angle glaucoma accounts for 90% of glaucoma cases in the United States. It is painless and does not have acute attacks. The only signs are gradually progressive visual field loss, and optic nerve changes (increased cup-to-disc ratio on fundoscopic examination).
Closed-angle glaucoma accounts for less than 10% of glaucoma cases in the United States, but as much as half of glaucoma cases in other nations (particularly Asian countries). About 10% of patients with closed angles present with acute angle closure crises characterized by sudden ocular pain, seeing halos around lights, red eye, very high intraocular pressure (>30 mmHg), nausea and vomiting, sudden decreased vision, and a fixed, mid-dilated pupil. Acute angle closure is an ocular emergency.
The major risk factor for most glaucomas and focus of treatment is increased intraocular pressure. Intraocular pressure is a function of production of liquid aqueous humor by the ciliary processes of the eye and its drainage through the trabecular meshwork. Aqueous humor flows from the ciliary processes into the posterior chamber, bounded posteriorly by the lens and the zonules of Zinn and anteriorly by the iris. It then flows through the pupil of the iris into the anterior chamber, bounded posteriorly by the iris and anteriorly by the cornea. From here the trabecular meshwork drains aqueous humor via Schlemm's canal into scleral plexuses and general blood circulation.
In open angle glaucoma there is reduced flow through the trabecular meshwork; in angle closure glaucoma, the iridocorneal angle is completely closed because of forward displacement of the final roll and root of the iris against the cornea resulting in the inability of the aqueous fluid to flow from the posterior to the anterior chamber and then out of the trebecular network.
The inconsistent relationship of glaucomatous optic neuropathy with ocular hypertension has provoked hypotheses and studies on anatomic structure, eye development, nerve compression trauma, optic nerve blood flow, excitatory neurotransmitter, trophic factor, retinal ganglion cell/axon degeneration, glial support cell, immune, and aging mechanisms of neuron loss.
There are several causes for glaucoma. Those at risk are advised to have a dilated eye examination at least once a year.
Ocular hypertension (increased pressure within the eye) is the largest risk factor in most glaucomas, but in some populations only 50% of patients with primary open angle glaucoma actually have elevated ocular pressure.
Those of African descent are three times more likely to develop primary open angle glaucoma.
Elderly people have thinner corneal thickness and often suffer from hypermetropia. They are also at higher risk for primary open angle glaucoma.
People with a family history of glaucoma have about six percent chance of developing glaucoma.
Many East Asian groups are prone to developing angle closure glaucoma due to their shallower anterior chamber depth, with the majority of cases of glaucoma in this population consisting of some form of angle closure. Inuit also have a twenty to forty times higher risk than Caucasians of developing primary angle closure glaucoma. Women are three times more likely than men to develop acute angle-closure glaucoma due to their shallower anterior chambers.
Other factors can cause glaucoma, known as "secondary glaucomas," including prolonged use of steroids (steroid-induced glaucoma); conditions that severely restrict blood flow to the eye, such as severe diabetic retinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion (neovascular glaucoma); ocular trauma (angle recession glaucoma); and uveitis (uveitic glaucoma).
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) has been found to be associated with mutations in genes at several loci. Normal tension glaucoma, which comprises one third of POAG, is associated with genetic mutations.
There is increasing evidence that ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Current data indicate that fluctuations in blood flow are more harmful in glaucomatous optic neuropathy than steady reductions. Unstable blood pressure and dips are linked to optic nerve head damage and correlate with visual field deterioration.
A number of studies also suggest a possible correlation between hypertension and the development of glaucoma. In normal tension glaucoma, nocturnal hypotension may play a significant role.
There is no clear evidence that vitamin deficiencies cause glaucoma in humans. It follows then that oral vitamin supplementation is not a recommended treatment for glaucoma.
Various rare congenital/genetic eye malformations are associated with glaucoma. Occasionally, failure of the normal third trimester gestational atrophy of the hyaloid canal and the tunica vasculosa lentis is associated with other anomalies. Angle closure induced ocular hypertension and glaucomatous optic neuropathy may also occur with these anomalies and modelled in mice.
Screening for glaucoma is usually performed as part of a standard eye examination performed by ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists. Testing for glaucoma should include measurements of the intraocular pressure via tonometry, changes in size or shape of the eye, anterior chamber angle examination or gonioscopy, and examination of the optic nerve to look for any visible damage to it, or change in the cup-to-disc ratio and also rim appearance and vascular change. A formal visual field test should be performed. The retinal nerve fiber layer can be assessed with imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx), and/or scanning laser ophthalmoscopy also known as Heidelberg Retina Tomography (HRT3).
Owing to the sensitivity of all methods of tonometry to corneal thickness, methods such as Goldmann tonometry should be augmented with pachymetry to measure central corneal thickness (CCT). A thicker-than-average cornea can result in a pressure reading higher than the 'true' pressure, whereas a thinner-than-average cornea can produce a pressure reading lower than the 'true' pressure.
Because pressure measurement error can be caused by more than just CCT (i.e., corneal hydration, elastic properties, etc.), it is impossible to 'adjust' pressure measurements based only on CCT measurements. The Frequency Doubling Illusion can also be used to detect glaucoma with the use of a Frequency Doubling Technology (FDT) perimeter.
Examination for glaucoma also could be assessed with more attention given to sex, race, history of drug use, refraction, inheritance and family history.
The modern goals of glaucoma management are to avoid glaucomatous damage, nerve damage, preserve visual field and total quality of life for patients with minimal side effects. This requires appropriate diagnostic techniques and follow up examinations and judicious selection of treatments for the individual patient. Although intraocular pressure is only one of the major risk factors for glaucoma, lowering it via various pharmaceuticals and/or surgical techniques is currently the mainstay of glaucoma treatment.
Vascular flow and neurodegenerative theories of glaucomatous optic neuropathy have prompted studies on various neuroprotective therapeutic strategies including nutritional compounds some of which may be regarded by clinicians as safe for use now, while others are on trial.
Intraocular pressure can be lowered with medication, usually eye drops. There are several different classes of medications to treat glaucoma with several different medications in each class.
Each of these medicines may have local and systemic side effects. Adherence to medication protocol can be confusing and expensive; if side effects occur, the patient must be willing either to tolerate these, or to communicate with the treating physician to improve the drug regimen. Initially, glaucoma drops may reasonably be started in either one or in both eyes.
Poor compliance with medications and follow-up visits is a major reason for vision loss in glaucoma patients. A 2003 study of patients in an HMO found that half failed to fill their prescription the first time and one in four failed to refill their prescriptions a second time. Patient education and communication must be ongoing to sustain successful treatment plans for this lifelong disease with no early symptoms.
The possible neuroprotective effects of various topical and systemic medications are also being investigated.
- Prostaglandin analogs like latanoprost (Xalatan), bimatoprost (Lumigan) and travoprost (Travatan) increase uveoscleral outflow of aqueous humor. Bimatoprost also increases trabecular outflow
- Topical beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists such as timolol, levobunolol (Betagan), and betaxolol decrease aqueous humor production by the ciliary body.
- Alpha2-adrenergic agonists such as brimonidine (Alphagan) and apraclonidine work by a dual mechanism, decreasing aqueous humor production and increasing trabecular outflow.
- Less-selective sympathomimetics such as epinephrine decrease aqueous humor production through vasoconstriction of ciliary body blood vessels. Epinephrine's mydriatic effect, however, renders it unsuitable for closed-angle glaucoma.
- Miotic agents (parasympathomimetics) like pilocarpine work by contraction of the ciliary muscle, tightening the trabecular meshwork and allowing increased outflow of the aqueous humour. Ecothiopate is used in chronic glaucoma.
- Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors like dorzolamide (Trusopt), brinzolamide (Azopt), acetazolamide (Diamox) lower secretion of aqueous humor by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase in the ciliary body.
- Physostigmine is also used to treat glaucoma and delayed gastric emptying.
- Marijuana (cannabis), when smoked or eaten, reduced interocular pressure by about 25% in several studies, a reduction as good as that obtained by most other medicines. The effect lasts 3-4 hours.