Dengue fever or dengue fever (abbreviated DHF) is an infection caused by the dengue virus. Mosquitoes or some types of mosquitoes transmit (or spread) of dengue virus. Dengue fever is also known as "breakbone fever" or "Bonebreak fever" (fever joints), because it can cause fever sufferers experience severe pain as if their bones broken. Some symptoms of dengue fever are fever; headache; skin redness that looks like measles; and sore muscles and joints. In some patients, dengue fever can turn into one of two life-threatening forms. The first is dengue fever, which causes bleeding, leakage of blood vessels (the tube that carries blood), and low levels of blood platelets (which causes blood to clot). The second is renjat dengue syndrome, which causes dangerously low blood pressure.
There are four types of dengue virus. If a person has been infected with one type of virus, usually he becomes immune to the kind of lifetime. However, he only will be protected from the other three types of viruses in a short time. If then he was hit by one of three types of the virus, he might run into serious problems.
There is no vaccine that can prevent a person exposed to the dengue virus. There are a few precautions dengue fever. People can protect themselves from mosquitoes and minimize the number of mosquito bites. Scientists also advocated to reduce mosquito habitat and reduce the number of mosquitoes that exist. If a person is exposed to dengue fever, usually he can recover only by drinking plenty of fluids, as long as the disease is mild or severe. If someone is having a more severe case, he may require intravenous fluid (the fluid that is inserted through a vein, using a needle and pipe infusion), or blood transfusion (given blood from another person).
Since the 1960s, more and more people are exposed to dengue fever. The disease started to cause problems all over the world since the Second World War. The disease is prevalent in more than 110 countries. Each year, approximately 50-100 million people exposed to dengue fever.
Experts are developing drugs to deal with the virus directly. The community did a lot of effort to eradicate mosquitoes.
The first description of a dengue fever was written in 1779. In the early 20th century, scientists learned that the disease caused by the dengue virus, and that the virus is transmitted (or spread) by mosquitoes.
Signs and symptoms
Approximately 80% of patients (or 8 out of 10 patients) were infected with dengue virus have no symptoms, or only mild symptoms (such as the common cold). Approximately 5% of infected people (or 5 out of 100) will experience severe infections. The disease is life-threatening and even fewer of them. In a minority of these patients, the disease is life-threatening. Symptoms will appear between 3 and 14 days after a person is exposed to dengue virus. Often the symptoms appear after 4 to 7 days. Therefore, if someone had just returned from a region that has a lot of cases of dengue, then he has a fever or other symptoms more than 14 days after he returned from the region, the possibility of the disease not dengue.
Often, when children affected by dengue fever, symptoms similar to the symptoms of a cold or gastroenteritis (or stomach flu; for example, vomiting and diarrhea). However, children may experience severe problems due to dengue fever.
Classic symptoms of dengue fever is a fever that occurs suddenly; headache (usually on the back of the eye); rash; muscle aches and joint pain. The nickname "fever joints" for this disease illustrates how the resulting pain can be very severe. Dengue fever occurs in three phases: febrile, critical and recovery.
In the febrile phase, a person usually has a high fever. ("Fever" means that a person has a fever.) Heat the body often reaches 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). Patients also typically suffer from a common illness or headache. Febrile phase usually lasts 2 to 7 days. In this phase, approximately 50 to 80% of patients with symptoms of rash. On the first day or two, it will look like a skin rash that is exposed to hot (red). Subsequently (on day 4 to day 7), the rash will look like measles. Small red spots (petechiae) may appear on the skin. These spots are not lost when the skin is pressed. These spots are caused by broken capillaries. Patients may also experience mild bleeding of mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. Fever itself is likely to be stopped (recovered) and then again for one or two days. However, this pattern varies in each patient.
In some patients, the disease progresses to a critical phase after the fever subsides. The critical phase usually lasts for up to 2 days. During this phase, fluid can accumulate in the chest and abdomen. This happens because the small blood vessels leak. The liquid will be more and more, then stopped circulating fluid in the body. This means that the vital organs (most important) did not get the blood supply as much as usual. Therefore, these organs are not working normally. Patients with the disease may also experience severe bleeding (usually from the gastrointestinal tract.)
Less than 5% of people with experience renjat circulatory dengue, dengue renjat syndrome, and dengue fever. If someone has suffered other types of dengue ("secondary infection"), it is likely they will have serious problems.
In the healing phase, the liquid that comes out of the blood vessel was taken back into the bloodstream. Healing phase usually lasts for 2 to 3 days. Patients usually recover at this stage further. However, they may suffer severe itching and weak heartbeat. During this phase, patients may experience fluid overload conditions (ie, too much fluid is taken back). If the brain is exposed, the liquid can cause seizures or changes in level of consciousness (ie, someone whose mind, consciousness, and behavior is not as usual).
Dengue fever is caused by the dengue virus. In a scientific system of naming and classifying virus, dengue virus is part of the family Flaviviridae and genus flavivirus. Other viruses are also part of the same family and cause disease in humans. For example, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyasanur forest disease virus, and Omsk hemorrhagic fever viruses all belong to the familyFlaviviridae. Most of Reviews These viruses are spread by mosquitoes or ticks.
Dengue virus is transmitted (or spread) largely by Aedes mosquitoes, particularly Aedes aegypti mosquito types. These mosquitoes usually live between the latitudes of 35 ° North and 35 ° South, below the altitude of 1000 m. The mosquitoes are more likely to bite during the day. One bite can infect humans.
Sometimes, also contracted dengue mosquitoes from humans. If the female mosquito bites an infected person, the mosquito can be infected with the virus. At first live virus in cells towards the digestive tract of mosquitoes. Approximately 8 to 10 the next day, the virus spreads to the mosquito salivary glands, which produce saliva (or "spit"). This means that the saliva produced by these mosquitoes infected with dengue virus. Therefore, when a mosquito bites a human, the infected saliva into the human body and infect the person. The virus does not seem to cause problems on infected mosquitoes, which will continue throughout his life infected. Mosquito Aedes aegypti is the most widely spread dengue. This is because mosquitoes are like living close to humans and feed on humans instead of animals. This mosquito also like to lay their eggs in water containers that were made by humans.
Dengue may also be transmitted through blood products that have been infected and through organ donation. If a person with dengue donate blood or organs, which are then given to another person, that person may be exposed to dengue from blood or organs that are donated. In some countries, such as Singapore, dengue is common. In these countries, between 1.6 and 6 out of every 10,000 blood transfusions transmit dengue. Dengue virus can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or when the child was born. Dengue is usually not transmitted in other ways.
Compared with adults, infants and young children suffering from dengue more at risk of serious infection. Children tend to be at risk of severe illness if they are classified as children-nourished (if they are healthy and eat nutritious food). (This is different from many other infections, which are usually more severe in children who belonged to malnutrition, unhealthy, or not eating nutritious foods.) Women are more likely attacked more severe pain than men. Dengue can be life-threatening in patients with chronic (long-term), such as diabetes and asthma.
There are two vaccines that have been approved as a vaccine to prevent human to avoid dengue virus. To prevent infection, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends controlling mosquito populations and protect people from mosquito bites.
WHO recommends a program to prevent dengue (called the program "Integrated Vector Control") that includes five different sections:
Advocacy, mobilize communities, and legislation (laws) should be used so that public health organizations and communities become stronger.
All sections of society must work together. This includes the public sector (such as government), private sector (such as bisnisperusahaan), and the health care field.
All the way to control the disease must be must be integrated (or collected), so that available resources can deliver the greatest results.
Decisions must be based on evidence. It will help ensure that interventions (actions taken to tackle dengue) is useful.
The area where dengue problem should be given assistance, so that they can improve their ability to respond with either disease with their own efforts.
WHO also recommends some specific measures to control and prevent mosquito bites. The best way to control mosquito "Aedes aegypti" is to get rid of their habitat. Society must empty the water container is open (so that mosquitoes can not lay eggs in the open containers). Insecticides or biological control agents can also be used to control mosquitoes in these areas. Scientists found organophosphate or pyrethroid insecticide spraying is not helpful. Water silent (no flow) must be discarded because the water attracts mosquitoes, and also because people may be exposed to health problems if insecticide pooled in the water silently. To prevent mosquito bites, people can wear clothes that cover their skin completely. They can also use mosquito repellent (such as mosquito sprays), which helps keep mosquitoes. (DEET most potent.) People can also use mosquito nets at rest.
Scientists continue to conduct research for the prevention and treatment of dengue way. People are also trying to control mosquitoes, making the vaccine, and making drugs to combat the virus.
Many simple things have been done to control mosquitoes. Some of them have been successful. For example, guppies (Poecilia reticulata) or copepod can be placed in standing water to eat the larvae (eggs) mosquitoes.
Scientists are attempting to create a vaccine to protect humans from the four types of dengue. Some scientists worry that the vaccine may increase the risk of disease severity through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). The best vaccine that can be used usually has several different qualities. First, the vaccine is safe. Second, the vaccine will work after one or two injections (or injections). Third, the vaccine will melawa all types of dengue virus. Fourth, the vaccine will not cause ADE. Fifth, the vaccine will be easy to move (move) and stored (stored until needed. Sixth, low cost and effective vaccine (based on costs). Several vaccines have been tested in 2009. The scientists hope that the first vaccine (or vaccine) will be available commercially (can be purchased) in 2015.
Scientists also continue to work to make antiviral drugs to treat attacks of dengue fever and prevent humans are not exposed to severe complications. They are also trying to figure out how viral proteins are arranged. It might help them to make drugs that work effectively treat dengue.