Autism is a developmental disorder of the nervous system to someone who is mostly caused by heredity and sometimes have been detected since the baby is 6 months old. Detection and treatment as early as possible will make the patient more able to adjust itself to normal. Sometimes therapy should be made for life, yet people are smart enough Autism, Autism after receiving treatment as early as possible, often able to follow the Public School, became a Bachelor and can work meets the required standards, but the understanding of colleagues during school and co-workers often needed, for example, did not answer or did not look at the eyes of the speaker, when spoken to. Characteristics that stand out to someone who suffer from this disorder is difficult to build social relationships, communicate normally and understand the emotions and feelings of others. Autism is a developmental disorder that is part of the Autism Spectrum Disorders or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and is also one of five types of disorders under the umbrella of Pervasive Development Disorder or Pervasive Development Disorder (PDD). Autism is not a mental illness because it is a disorder that occurs in the brain, causing the brain can not function properly normal brain and this is manifested in the behavior of people with autism. Autism is the heaviest in the PDD.
The symptoms of autism may appear in children starting from the age of thirty months from birth until the age of three years maximum. Patients with autism may also experience problems in learning, communication, and language. Someone said to suffer from autism when experiencing one or more of the following characteristics: difficulties in social interaction qualitatively, the difficulty in communicating qualitatively, show repetitive behaviors, and experience delayed development or abnormal.
Symptoms of AutismHistorically, experts and researchers in the field of autism have difficulty in determining a person as autistic or not. At first, the diagnosis was based on the presence or absence of symptoms, but now scientists agree that autism is more of a continuum. The symptoms of autism can be seen when a child has a particular weakness in three domains, namely social, communication, and repetitive behavior.Aarons and Gittents (1992) recommends for a descriptive approach in diagnosing autism that includes a thorough observations in social settings children themselves. Possible regular mode at school, in the playgrounds or perhaps at home as a child's daily environment where the constraints and difficulties of their apparent among their peers normal.Another problem affecting the accuracy of a diagnosis is often also arise from the fact that the problematic behaviors is an attribute of the lack of proper parenting. These behaviors may be a result of negative family dynamics and not as a symptom of the disorder. The existence of an incorrect interpretation of understanding of the causes why children show behavioral problems capable of causing negative feelings of the parents. The next question then is what can be done to diagnose more accurately and consistently so earnestly autism separately with conditions exacerbated? There needs to be a model of diagnosis which include the entire life of children and evaluate the obstacles and difficulties of children, as well as to the abilities and skills of children themselves. May be appropriate when then recommended that professionals in the field of autism also consider the whole area, for example: the early development of children, the appearance of children, child mobility, control and care of children, sensory functions, the ability to play, the development of basic concepts, capabilities that are sequence, musical ability, and so forth that becomes a whole own child.Children with autism may appear normal in the first year or the second year of his life. The parents are often aware of the delay in language skills and specific ways different when playing and interacting with other people. These children may be very sensitive or even unresponsive to stimuli from the five senses (hearing, touch, smell, taste and sight). Repetitive behaviors (flapping-flapping hands or fingers, shook and repeating words) can also be found. Behavior can be aggressive (either to themselves or others), or is very passive. It is probable, previous behaviors that are considered normal may be additional symptoms. Besides playing repetitive, limited interest and social barriers, some other things are also always attached to people with autism are the responses that are not fair to the sensory information they receive, for example; noises, light, surface or texture of a particular material and the choice of a particular taste in food becomes their favorite.Some or all of the following mentioned characteristics can be observed in persons with autism spectrum along well with the conditions of the lightest to the heaviest.
- Barriers in communication, eg speak and understand the language.
- Difficulties in dealing with other people or objects in the vicinity as well as linking the events that occurred.
- Playing with toys or other objects improperly.
- It is difficult to accept change in routine and environment that is recognizable.
- Move your body or their repetitive patterns of behavior of certain
Persons with autism and their spectrum is very diverse both in capabilities, intelligence level, and even behavior. Some of them are not 'talk' while others may have limited language that often found repeating words or phrases (echolalia). Those who have high language skills generally use the themes are limited and difficult to understand abstract concepts. Thus, there is always the unique individuality of individuals disabling.Apart from the above characteristics, there are directives and guidelines for parents and practitioners to more waspasa and care for the symptoms are visible. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) in the United States said five types of behavior that should be watched and the need for further evaluation:
- Children are not muttering to 12 months
- Children do not demonstrate the ability gestural (pointing, chest, grasping) until the age of 12 months
- Children do not say a word until the age of 16 months
- The child is not able to use two sentences spontaneously at the age of 24 months
- Children lose the ability to speak and the social interaction of a certain age
Their fifth 'red light' in the above does not mean that the child bears the characteristics of autism but because of autism disorders is very diverse, the child must receive a multidisciplinary evaluation can include; Neurologists, psychologists, Pediatric, Speech Therapy, Paedagog and other professions that understand the problem of autism.Specialists are suitable for detecting Autism is a Pediatrician (Sp.A) assisted by Mental Specialist Doctors (Sp.KJ) to determine, among others, the level of intelligence Toddler, Ear Nose Throat Specialist Physician-Surgeon Head neck (Sp.THT- KL) to determine, among others, pendegaran Toddlers Its not / less responsive to noise or even can not speak and can be mistaken for people with autism, but notCauses of AutismUntil now, what causes a person can suffer from autism is not known with certainty. Research conducted by medical experts to produce several hypotheses about the causes of autism. Two things are believed to be the trigger for autism is genetic or hereditary factors and environmental factors such as the influence of chemical substances or vaccines.Factors AutismGenetic factors are believed to have a major role for persons with autism, although not fully believed that autism can only be caused by a gene from the family. Research conducted on autistic children showed that the probability of two identical twins have autism is 60 to 95 percent, while the possibility of two siblings with autism is just 2.5 to 8.5 percent. This is interpreted as a large role gene as a cause of autism because identical twins have the same genes that are 100% while the siblings only have genes that are 50% similar.There have been suggestions that autism is caused by the MMR vaccine routinely given to children in the age at which the symptoms of autism begin to be seen. This concern is due to a chemical called thimerosal that is used to preserve vaccines containing mercury. Elemental mercury is what is considered potentially cause autism in children. However, there is no strong evidence to support that autism is caused by vaccines. The use of thimerosal in vaccines preservation has been dismissed yet autism rates in children is increasing.Treatment of autismThe intensity of treatment behaviors in children with autism is important, but the fundamental problems encountered in Indonesia is crucial to overcome first. Without ignoring other factors, some facts which are relevant to the issue of handling the problem of autism in Indonesia include:
- Lack of trained therapists in Indonesia. Parents have always been a pioneer in the process of intervention so that the centers initially intervention for children with autism is built based on the interests of the family to ensure the continuity of their own children's education.
- The absence of formal instructions that treatment in Indonesia. Not enough to just implement the instructions teatment external application does not always fit with the culture of the lives of children in Indonesia.
- There are still many cases of autism are not detected early so that when the child becomes greater the more complex the problems faced by the elderly intervention. Experts are able to diagnose autism, information about the disorder and the characteristics of autism as well as formal institutions that provide educational services for children with autism have not been spread evenly across all regions in Indonesia.
- Not coherence providing education for children with autism in schools.
- The final issue is no less important is the lack of knowledge, both clinically and practically supported by empirical data validity (empirically Validated Treatments / EVT) of countermeasures autism problems in Indonesia. Studies and research of autism in addition to requiring large funds should also be supported by empirical data validity, however ethically of course no parent who wants their child to be an experiment of a particular methodology. Certainty and security for the children's education is a major consideration for parents in choosing one type of treatment for their children so that if these doubts can be answered through scientific authorities it is increasingly open to the general public information about the knowledges both clinical and practical in the process of handling the problem of autism in Indonesia.
Autism therapySeveral types of traditional therapies and has been tested over time while other therapies may just appear. Unlike other developmental disorder, not many treatment instructions have been published much less standard procedure in dealing with autism. After all the experts agree that the therapy must be started early and should be directed to the obstacles and delays that are common to every child with autism, for example; communication and problem-persolan behavior. Comprehensive Treatment generally includes; Speech Therapy (Speech Therapy), occupational therapy (Occupational Therapy) and Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) to change and modify behavior.Here is a simple description of the various existing literature and summaries were not thorough explanation of some of the treatments that are recognized today. It becomes imperative for parents to seek out and identify the chosen treatment directly to those professionals in their field. Most of these techniques are comprehensive programs, while others are tailored towards specific targets into the disabling barriers or difficulties.
- Educational Treatment, include but are not limited to: applied behavior analysis (ABA) whose principles are used in research Lovaas so often equated with Discrete Trial Training or Intensive Behavioural Intervention.
- The developmental approach that is associated with education, known as Floortime.
- TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication - Handicapped Children).
- Biological Treatment, include but are not limited to: diet, vitamin and provision of drugs for reducing certain behaviors (aggressiveness, hyperactivity, self-mutilation, etc.).
- Speech - Language Therapy (Speech Therapy), including but not limited to business interruption handling associations and auditory processing disorder / auditory.
- Communication, improvement of communication capabilities, such as Pécs (Picture Exchange Communication System), sign language, visual strategy using pictures to communicate and supporters other communications.
- Autism Intensive Care, covering the work team from different disciplines who provide intervention both at home, school or other social lngkungan.
- Sensory Therapy nature, including but not limited to the Occupational Therapy (OT), and Auditory Integration Training (AIT).
With the various types of therapy that can be chosen by the parents, it is very important for them to choose one type of therapy that can improve the functionality of children and reduce interference as well as barriers to autism. It is unfortunate still minimal scientific data that can support various types of therapy that can be selected parents in Indonesia today. The fact that it is very difficult to make a study on autism. Very many variables owned subsidiary, of the severity of the disturbance to the surrounding environment and not to mention ethics in it to make a study it seriously controlled. Very unlikely to control all the variables that exist so that data generated from previous studies may be statistically inaccurate.No single type of therapy that works for all children. Therapy should be tailored to the needs of the child, based on its potential, its shortcomings and of course in accordance with the child's own interests. Therapy should be conducted multidisciplinary, for example using; occupational therapy, speech therapy and behavioral therapy as a base. Experts who work with children should be able to direct your options against various types of therapies that exist today. There is no guarantee whether the therapy chosen by the parents or the family will indeed be effective. However, specify one type of therapy and implemented consistently, if no visible change or a real advance for 3 months can make changes to therapy. Guidance and directives given by the parents must be implemented consistently. When seen significant progress during the three months then other forms of intervention could be added. Remain objective and ask the experts if there is other behavioral changes.