Zika occurs through intermediary Aedes, particularly Aedes aegypti species. Disease it causes named as Zika, Zika disease (Zika disease) or fever Zika (Zika fever).
Zika virus that has infected humans can cause several symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, conjunctivitis (red eyes), and rash. Zika disease symptoms can resemble the symptoms of dengue and chikungunya disease, and can last a few days to a week.
Zika virus first found in rhesus monkey in the jungle Zika, Uganda, in 1947. Zika virus then rediscovered in the mosquito species Aedes Africanus in the same forest in 1948 and in humans in Nigeria in 1954. Zika virus becoming endemic diseases and began to spread beyond Africa and Asia in 2007 in the South Pacific region. In May 2015, this virus is widespread in Brazil. The spread of this virus continues to occur in January 2016 in North America, South America, the Caribbean, Africa, and Samoa (Oceania). In Indonesia alone, Zika virus have been found in Jambi in 2015.
The cause of the disease Zika (Zika disease) or fever Zika (Zika fever) is the Zika virus. Zika virus included in the line flavivirus virus that still comes from the same family as the virus that causes the disease dengue / dengue.
Zika virus is spread to humans by infected Aedes mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected after biting patients who already have the virus. These mosquitoes are very active during the day and live and breed in the indoor or outdoor are close to humans, especially in the area that there is a puddle of water.
Although rare, Zika virus can be transmitted from a mother to her baby. Zika virus is likely transmitted from a pregnant mother to the fetus in the womb. Can also persalinan.Hingga infants were infected at this time, cases of Zika virus transmission through breastfeeding have not been found so medical experts still encourage infected mothers to breastfeed their babies.
In addition, there are some reports that Zika virus transmission occurs through blood transfusions and sexual contact.
In addition to general symptoms that have been mentioned, other symptoms Zika virus found are headache, pain behind the eyes, and tired. These symptoms are generally mild and lasted until about one week.
Regarding the Zika virus incubation period is unknown, but possibly lasting up to 2-7 days since patients exposed to this virus (bitten by mosquito vectors). Of the five people infected with the virus Zika, a person becomes ill from the virus. Although rare, severe cases can occur that require further treatment in the hospital, or even death.
Zika virus transmission that occurs in the womb was associated with the occurrence of microcephaly and brain damage in the fetus. Microcephaly is a condition in which the circumference of the head is smaller than normal size.
Viewed from symptoms that mimic many other diseases, the examination of these trips ever undertaken by the patient, particularly to areas which have cases of Zika virus infection can help narrow the differential diagnosis. The doctor may ask area, time, and activity during a visit to the area.
The doctor may do blood tests to detect viral nucleic acid, isolating the virus, or serologic testing. In addition through blood sampling is usually done in 1-3 days after symptoms appear, urine and saliva may also be a test material in the third to fifth day.
Zika virus treatment focuses on reducing symptoms felt by the patient as vaccines and medications aimed at this disease has not been found. Treatment of the symptoms experienced may include infusion of fluids to prevent dehydration, pain medication to relieve fever and headache, as well as adequate rest. Use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are not recommended before the possibility of dengue affected patients can be eliminated.
For patients who have been infected with the virus Zika expected to avoid mosquito bites during this virus because Zika virus that can survive long in the patient's blood can be spread to others through mosquito bites.
Preventing mosquito bites is one of the preventive measures early can help you avoid infection Zika virus. Some preventive measures that can be done when you are in an area affected Zika virus, among others:
Ensuring the place you live has air conditioning or at least have curtains doors and windows to prevent mosquitoes from entering the room.
- Use mosquito nets on the beds if the area you are visiting does not have the above.
- Use long-sleeved shirts and pants
- Use insect repellent material which is listed on the environmental protection agency or environmental protection agency (EPA), in accordance with the instructions on the packaging. Instructions attached will provide information on the application, the application area is allowed, the time and duration of application.
- Infants under the age of two months are not allowed to use insect repellent material so you must ensure that the baby clothes can protect from mosquito bites.
- Also, use of mosquito nets in a crib, stroller, and a sling or other baby carrier tools.
- Pay attention to body area children older adults when applying insect repellent material. Avoid areas of the body that is injured or experiencing irritation, eye area, mouth and hands.
- Choose care, washing, or use clothing and equipment that use materials containing permethrin. Learn about product information and instructions regarding the use of protection provided. Avoid using these products on the skin.
- Learn well as information about the area you will visit, such as health facilities and the outdoor area is open before the departure time arrives, especially areas Zika virus.
- Perform tests Zika virus after returning you, especially pregnant women, from the spread of the virus Zika.